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Interior Design Elements

In order to design a space, the designers follow certain rules which make the room appealing aesthetically and functionally. There are seven elements that the designers consider while designing any area. Harmony of the below-mentioned elements improves the functionality of the room.

  1. Space

  2. Line

  3. Forms

  4. Light

  5. Color

  6. Texture

  7. Pattern

1. Space:

Space is the foundation of any interior design. The very first thing that designer considers is space. Space does not have to be completely filled with different things. The urge of filling every wall and every corner of the room results in the death of interior design. Space is divided into two parts;

  1. Positive space (Space which the objects in the room occupy is called positive space)

  2. Negative space (Open areas or space around the objects is called the negative space)


Space in interior design

In interior design, negative space is as important as the positive space. In fact, negative space is considered first in design because it already exists in the layout of architectural plans. So, one must first consider the already existing negative spaces and use them wisely. The architectural plans will help you to alter the negative spaces and create on purpose spaces that may complement your design.

For example, if you place a square side table parallel to the wall it will create a rectangular negative space, while a table angled in a corner will create a triangular negative space.

Considering the space shape will also help you to choose the type of accessories and furniture for the room. For example, if you are planning to put a round-shaped dining table in a square or a rectangular room, you can convert the door and window frames to curved archways to complement the table.

While considering the space you can also work out the type of furniture and accessories that will complement the room as a whole. For example, if you have a square room and you want to put angular sofas in it then a round or curved shaped coffee table will soften the harsh lines of the negative space that will be created due to angular sofas.

Negative Space Use in Interior Design
Negative Space Use in Interior Design

2. Line:

The line acts as a visual guide of the interior space. It gives birth to shapes and forms. An interior designer uses lines to design different forms and shapes to create the overall appearance of the room. Lines are of three types;

  1. Vertical

  2. Horizontal

  3. Dynamic

Types of Lines in Interior Design

Vertical lines evoke the feeling of freedom and strength. Horizontal lines give a feeling of stability, formality, and efficiency. While the dynamic lines provide energy and movement. Horizontal lines can be found in accessories like chairs, tables, beds, etc. Vertical lines can be seen indoors, windows, wardrobes, etc. Dynamic lines can be seen in stairs.

Mixing of lines in interior design

3. Forms:

The physical shape of anything that is three dimensional is considered to be forms. Forms are usually described as;

  1. Geometric forms (Rigid hard lines)

  2. Organic forms (Curved lines inspired from nature)

The above two elements that are space and line will help to make and choose good forms for the design.

Rigid Forms in interior design
Organic forms in interior design

4. Light:

Lighting is a very crucial element of interior design. Good lighting either artificial or natural can uplift the whole room like nothing else. Lights set the room mood and ambiance. Natural light penetration depends on the design, placement, size of the windows, and doors. Artificial lighting is divided into three categories on the basis of their function;

  1. Task lighting (Having a defined purpose like study table light or bedside table lamps)

  2. Accent lighting (To highlight something like any structure, sculpture, painting)

  3. Mood lighting (Set the mood and overall ambiance of the room)

Task lighting
Accent Lighting
Mood Lighting

5. Color:

Color is an element of interior design having a science of its own. It can create mood, ambiance, or change the perception of a room-scale. It can trigger emotions and memories while effecting human psychology. For example, green and blue tones give a feeling of calmness and are well suited for bedrooms and orange and red increase appetite and mostly used in restaurants.

Red & Orange tones in restaurant
Fresh blue tone in interior

6. Texture:

The tactical surface of any object or finish is referred to as a texture. This design element is often overlooked but it can add a lot of depth and dimension to space. Textures are classified into two types;

  1. Visual texture (one that is perceived through eyes)

  2. Actual texture (one that can be felt with hand)

Actual texture of brick wall in room
Visual texture in interior space

In order to define the mood of the room, there should be one bold texture and one contrasting texture in order to break the monotony.

7. Pattern:

A pattern is created by the help of color and texture. Any repetitive design leads to the generation of patterns. Patterns can be found in wallpapers, rugs, soft furnishing, and fabrics. There are many types of patterns such as;

  1. Geometric

  2. Stripes

  3. Pictorial

  4. Organic

  5. Animal prints

Patterns in interior space
Patterns in interior space

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